By Valerie Walker, J. D. Pickard (auth.), L. Symon, J. Brihaye, B. Guidetti, F. Loew, J. D. Miller, H. Nornes, E. Pásztor, B. Pertuiset, M. G. Yaşargil (eds.)
As an addition to the ecu postgraduate education process for younger neurosurgeons we started to post in 1974 this sequence dedicated to Advances and Technical criteria in Neurosurgery which used to be later backed via the eu organization of Neurosurgical Societies. the truth that the English language is definitely with the intention to changing into the foreign medium at eu clinical meetings is a brilliant asset when it comes to mutual knowing. consequently we've got determined to post all contributions in English, whatever the local language of the authors. All contributions are submitted to the total editorial board sooner than e-book of any quantity. isn't meant to compete with the courses of unique Our sequence medical papers in different neurosurgical journals. Our purpose is, really, to give fields of neurosurgery and comparable components during which vital fresh advances were made. The contributions are written by way of experts within the given fields and represent the 1st a part of each one quantity. within the moment a part of every one quantity, we submit exact descriptions of normal operative strategies, offered by means of skilled clinicians; in those articles the authors describe the concepts they hire and clarify the benefits, problems and hazards concerned about a number of the tactics. This half is meant basically to help younger neurosurgeons of their submit graduate education. in spite of the fact that, we're confident that it'll even be helpful to skilled, totally proficient neurosurgeons.
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In the dog and cat, indomethacin attenuates the cerebrovascular effects of bradykinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and Angiotension II (Toda 1977, Toda and Miyazaki 1981, Wei et al. 1980). However in porcine cerebral arteries, the relaxation provoked by VIP was not affected by indomethacin (Winqvist et al. 1982). The effect of angiotensin II on pial arterioles in the cat displays remarkable tachyphylaxis (Acar and Pickard 1980). In the kidney, Aiken and Vane (1973) demonstrated that such tachyphylaxis is caused by intra renal prostaglandin release.
1980, Winquist et al. 1982) and for VIP at least, the findings are conflicting. Because arterial relaxation (rat) to VIP, acetyl choline and histamine was not blocked by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, but was by ETYA (eicosatetraynoic acid) an inhibitor oflipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity, a lip oxygenase product has been implicated indirectly (Davies and Williams 1984). However this seems unlikely from studies of Gordon and Martin (1983), and some other candidate must be sought.
1983) could find no evidence for the detectable release of arachidonic acid or prostacyc1in metabolites (6-oxoPGF]u; 6,15-diketo-13,14-dihydro-PGF]u) from the brain either in the basal state or during inhalation of carbon dioxide. The levels of 6-oxoPGF] u in this study were seldom above the threshold for detection (25 pg/ml). In contrast, in the study by Uyama et al. (1983), where internal carotid arterial and internal jugular venous concentrations of6-oxo-PGF]u were measured in five patients with mild cerebral thrombotic infarction, the levels were about 50 pg/ml with no evidence for cerebral production and no evidence for a change with hypercapnia.
Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 2 by Valerie Walker, J. D. Pickard (auth.), L. Symon, J. Brihaye, B. Guidetti, F. Loew, J. D. Miller, H. Nornes, E. Pásztor, B. Pertuiset, M. G. Yaşargil (eds.)