By Noel Weeks
The incidence of treaties through the historical close to East has been investigated on a couple of events, as a rule with the intention to get to the bottom of sure questions bobbing up within the biblical box. because of that attention, the lifestyles of an identical establishment in a couple of diverse cultures has now not been taken care of as an issue in itself. often the lifestyles of treaties in the course of the sector has been taken with no consideration, or an easy borrowing version has been used to give an explanation for how comparable varieties got here for use in several cultures. Why varieties have been related around the zone has no longer been probed. This paintings investigates treaty occurrences in numerous cultures and reveals that the types used correlate with methods of conserving political keep an eye on either internally and over vassals. comparable techniques are projected in authentic money owed of historical past. hence you can still approximately distinguish threats in response to strength from persuasion in accordance with benevolence and ancient precedent, although numerous mixtures of those take place. there's a most likely additional connection of the capability selected to the measure of centralisation of strength in the society. Underlying the neighborhood traditions is a standard culture which needs to be dated to the pre-literate interval. Biblical covenants healthy inside this trend. The cultures handled are Mesopotamia, the Hittites, Egypt, Syrian centres and Israel.
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Additional info for Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships
Laesso/e, People of Ancient Assyria (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963), p. B. , 3rd edn, 1969), p. 628. Mesopotamiaa 27 requirements of Shamshi-Adad's oath are probably indicated by what he claims as evidence of his good faith: failure to raid Yashub-Adad's land. Here we have treaty obligations and beneficence brought together, even if the goodness is merely refraining from aggression. 53 From the context the likely reference is to a treaty concluded between, or under negotiation between, Shamshi-Adad and the king of Eshnunna.
2 Various gods appear in these curses. There is a separate god list following this section. These gods are mainly Assyrian but some Syrian deities do appear towards the end of the list. An interesting sidelight on the paucity of our Mesopotamian evidence for treaties is the fact that these poor copies represent the first actual text we have of Mesopotamian treaties since the Old Assyrian period. As we shall see, the Hittite evidence is much fuller. In the treaty of Ashur-narari V and Mati'ilu the treaty itself is referred to as an adu.
Ein Mythos von der Himmelfahrt des Kdnigs von Kis, (Gottingen: Seminar fur Keilschriftforschung, 2000), p. 108,11. 2-^1; S. Langdon, 'The Legend of Etana and the Eagle', Bahyloniaca 12(1931), pp. V. Kinnier Wilson, The Legend of Etana (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1985), pp. 32-A 22. Haul, Das Etana-Epos, p. V. Kinnier Wilson, The Legend of Etana, pp. 22^. 23. For a study of different versions of the story see Haul, Das Etana-Epos. Haul (Das Etana-Epos, pp. 35-44) considers the, as yet unproved, possibility that the story may have Sumerian roots.
Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships by Noel Weeks